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This issue of “The Historical Review of Sparta”, jointly promoted by the Department of Classics of Sapienza University of Rome and the Institute of Sparta, focuses on the battle of Sellasia, which occurred in the summer 222 BC and saw the clash between the Spartans led by Cleomenes III and the Achaean-Macedonian alliance guided by Antigonus III Doson. The several papers here collected address the historical incident from different and complementary perspectives, in the attempt to contextualize it in a wider framework. Hence, the articles carry out a thorough analysis of Hellenistic Sparta, by investigating the constitutional reforms implemented during the 3rd cent. BC, exploring the political (and sometimes conflictual) relations between the Laconian polis and other emerging powers in Greece and the Mediterranean basin, and discussing the changes occurred in the governmental, economic, military, educational and religious field. Furthermore, the contributions offer an in-depth study of the military strategies and tactics implemented in the battlefield, as well as an analysis on the final impact of the catastrophic defeat of Sparta on its internal societal structure and cultural system, and a reflection on the modern reception of the historical event.